1-What brain pathology better correlates with memory loss in Alzheimer's?
b) amyloid plaques?
c) synaptic loss (connections between cells)?
d) neuron loss.
2- What is NOT associated with increased risk for getting Alzheimer's
b) prior brain trauma with loss of consciousness
d) brain resistance to insulin like signals
f) chronic stress (hypercortisolism)
g) low estrogen
h) low body weight
h) low body weight
i) high intake of aluminin
3-Which of factors listed below is NOT associated with reduced risk from getting Alzheimer's
a) more years of education
c) high dietary intake of fruits and vegetables
d) high intake of fish or fish oil (except in those with ApoE4)
f) at least two years of NSAID use prior to cognitive decline (excluding frailty)
g) one or two copies of the gene ApoE2
4-Which genetic factor can explains at least 25% of cases of Alzheimer's
a) Presenilin 1 that increase production of amyloid
b) Apo E4 that increases accumulation of amyloid
c) Presenilin 2 that increase production of amyloid
d) APP mutations that increase production of amyloid
e) all contribute equally since you need a mutation to get Alzheimer's
5-What's wrong with inflammation in the Alzheimers brain
a) failed clearance mechanisms lead to accumulation of toxins produced by the disease process
b) The compounds secreted by chronic stimulation of inflammatory cells further disease progression (free radicals that cause oxidative damage and cytokines that increase vulnerability to toxic amyloid)
c) both a & b
d) nothing is wrong with inflammation in Alzheimer's is merely compensatory response to disease progression that is primarily protective and helpful.
6-The amyloid vaccine works in animal models by:
a) improving the function of inflammatory cells
b) immunoneutralizing the toxic peptide
c) both a & b
d) killing bacteria that causes Alzheimer's
e) all of the above.
7-Which is false? oxidative damage in Alzheimer's...
a) is best prevented with vitamin E
b) correlates with disease severity
c) correlates with synaptic loss
d) occurs in other age-related diseases
e) occurs in DNA, protein, and fat
f) none is false. they are all true.
8- Which is false? Curcumin is
a) a yellow pigment in the root of the turmeric plant used as a dye in clothing
b) a phenolic anti-oxidant similar to many pigments in plants
c) an amyloid-binding molecule
d) an NSAID (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent)
e) similar to phenolic antioxidants in other roots such as ginger
f) it is a crude extract, not a molecule
9-Which is false? Docosahexaenoic acid
a) is an omega-3 fatty acid enriched in cold-water fish
b) is like EPA, a pentanoic fatty acid in fish
c) is enriched in some marine algaes
d) cannot be easily made from its precursor alpha linolenic (in flaxseed, soy and nuts)
e) is important for membrane fluidity
f) is enriched in synapses in the brain
g) in human breast milk , contributes to brain development
h) is commonly eaten in the typical American Diet
10. If the 40-43 amino acid peptide beta-amyloid causes the disease, why isn't it good enough to just reduce amyloid production?
a) oxidation can go on its own steam, once stimulated
b) amyloid has beneficial effects
c) we don't understand the stage dependent effects of amyloid on the disease process
d) damage caused in the disease depletes factors needed for repair
e) in progressive diseases that take years to develop, multiple pathogenic pathways are not necessarily reversed by blocking trigger
f) all of the above
11. What is the rationale for developing sensitive bio or brain imaging markers for Alzheimer's?
a) early diagnosis, so that you get better response to therapeutic intervention
b) Sensitive clinical trial endpoints with less variability than neuropsychiatric tests will facilitate testing of more drugs than are now feasable
c) Can study progression of the disease in patients
d) all of the above
12. Regional alterations in rain Metaolistm of Alzheimer's brain is Most similar to
a) a normal brain
b) a patient with vascular disease
c) an infants brain